Сиборгий (экавольфрам)", "Nobelium – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table", "Responses on the report 'Discovery of the Transfermium elements' followed by reply to the responses by Transfermium Working Group", "Names and symbols of transfermium elements (IUPAC Recommendations 1997)", "New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic Number 103", "Recent developments concerning the discovery of elements 101–111", "Studies of Lawrencium Isotopes with Mass Numbers 255 Through 260", "Is the chemistry of lawrencium peculiar", "Electronic configuration in the ground state of atomic lawrencium", "Resonance Transition Energies and Oscillator Strengths in Lutetium and Lawrencium", "Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103", "Lawrencium experiment could shake up periodic table", "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements", "Insights into the bonding and electronic nature of heavy element materials", "Superheavy Element 117 Points to Fabled "Island of Stability" on Periodic Table", "Nucleonica :: Web driven nuclear science", "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties", Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry Division: Periodic Table – Lawrencium, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lawrencium&oldid=996484668, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 21:54. A possible explanation was that there was a low number of events attributed to element 103. The first atoms of lawrencium were reportedly produced by bombarding a three-milligram target consisting of three isotopes of the element californium with boron-10 and boron-11 nuclei from the Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator (HILAC). [37], The first important work on element 103 was carried out at Berkeley by the nuclear-physics team of Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, and their co-workers on February 14, 1961. Eighteen tracks were noted, with decay energy around (9 ± 1) MeV and half-life around 1⁄4 s; the Berkeley team noted that while the cause could be the production of an isotope of ele… Thirteen isotopes of lawrencium are currently known; the most stable is 266Lr with a half-life of 11 hours, but the shorter-lived 260Lr (half-life 2.7 minutes) is most commonly used in chemistry because it can be produced on a larger scale. In the periodic table, it is located to the right of the actinide nobelium, to the left of the 6d transition metal rutherfordium, and under the lanthanide lutetium with which it shares many physical and chemical properties. Hence, unlike thallium but like lutetium, lawrencium would prefer to form LrH3 than LrH, and LrCO is expected to be similar to the also unknown LuCO, both metals having a valence configuration of σ2π1 in their respective monocarbonyls. To make matters worse, the configuration of this week's element, lawrencium, has now been revised as a result of some calculations that include quantum relativistic effects. 6d1. Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103. They are unstable and unnatural [3]. [i], In 1958, scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory claimed the discovery of element 102, now called nobelium. It is the first dao-stabilized element that has a maximum half-life that is longer than the age of the universe. [53] Though early calculations gave conflicting results,[54] more recent studies and calculations confirm the s2p suggestion. [50], In the molecule lawrencium dihydride (LrH2), which is predicted to be bent, the 6d orbital of lawrencium is not expected to play a role in the bonding, unlike that of lanthanum dihydride (LaH2). [38] Despite repeated attempts, they were unable to confirm assignment of an alpha emitter with a half-life of eight seconds to 257103. An atom of Lawrencium in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Lawrencium. 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[65] However, shorter-lived isotopes are usually used in chemical experiments because 266Lr currently can only be produced as a final decay product of even heavier and harder-to-synthesize elements: it was discovered in 2014 in the decay chain of 294Ts. common oxidation no. Can Prairie Dogs be Managed Utilizing Reconciliation Ecology? The exact location of the upcoming impact on the detector is marked; also marked are its energy and the time of the arrival. Use the element blocks of the periodic table to find the highest electron orbital. There are 118 elements in the periodic table. [22] The nucleus is recorded again once its decay is registered, and the location, the energy, and the time of the decay are measured. Direct measurements are also possible, but for the most part they have remained unavailable for heaviest nuclei. Lawrencium Basic Facts Atomic Number: 103 Symbol: Lr Atomic Weight: (262) Discovery: A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, A.E. [38] However, it was not until 1971, when the nuclear physics team at the University of California at Berkeley successfully performed a whole series of experiments aimed at measuring the nuclear decay properties of the lawrencium isotopes with mass numbers from 255 through 260,[44][45] that all previous results from Berkeley and Dubna were confirmed, apart from the Berkeley's group initial erroneous assignment of their first produced isotope to 257103 instead of the probably correct 258103. Oxidation states: +3 Considerations. [68], Both 256Lr and 260Lr have half-lives too short to allow a complete chemical purification process. Looking Good, Feeling Bad; or, What's the Problem with Perc? Ions of different charge (+2, +3, or +4) will then extract into the organic phase under different pH ranges, but this method will not separate the trivalent actinides and thus 256Lr must be identified by its emitted 8.24 MeV alpha particles. LaH2 has La–H bond distances of 2.158 Å, while LrH2 should have shorter Lr–H bond distances of 2.042 Å due to the relativistic contraction and stabilization of the 7s and 7p orbitals involved in the bonding, in contrast to the core-like 5f subshell and the mostly uninvolved 6d subshell. Not occurring in nature, lawrencium (probably as the isotope lawrencium-257) was first produced (1961) by chemists Albert Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, A.E. [61], Thirteen isotopes of lawrencium are known, with mass numbers 251–262 and 266; all are radioactive. Ok but how many valence electrons does an atom of Lawrencium have? However, its range is very short; as nuclei become larger, its influence on the outermost nucleons (protons and neutrons) weakens. When an electron is added to a neutral atom, energy is released. 256Lr can be produced by bombarding californium-249 with 70 MeV boron-11 ions (producing lawrencium-256 and four neutrons), while 260Lr can be produced by bombarding berkelium-249 with oxygen-18 (producing lawrencium-260, an alpha particle, and three neutrons). [68], In 2009, a team at JINR led by Oganessian published results of their attempt to create, The greater the excitation energy, the more neutrons are ejected. Atomic Radius: Atomic Volume: Covalent Radius: Cross Section (Thermal Neutron Capture) σ a / barns: Crystal Structure: Electron Configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 p 6 3s 2 p 6 d 10 4s 2 p 6 d 10 f 14 5s 2 p 6 d 10 f 14 6s 2 p 6 d 1 7s 2. [46] It is expected to be a rather heavy metal with a density of around 15.6 to 16.6 g/cm3. It decays into nobelium-262 through electron capture, mendelevium-258 through alpha decay or through spontaneous fission. The results of this experiment were not conclusive. Lawrencium is synthesized from californium and has no known uses.. [53], In 1988, a team of scientists led by Eichler calculated that lawrencium's enthalpy of adsorption on metal sources would differ enough depending on its electron configuration that it would be feasible to carry out experiments to exploit this fact to measure lawrencium's electron configuration. [62][66][67], While the lightest (251Lr to 254Lr) and heaviest (266Lr) lawrencium isotopes are produced only as alpha decay products of dubnium (Z = 105) isotopes, the middle isotopes (255Lr to 262Lr) can all be produced by bombarding actinide (americium to einsteinium) targets with light ions (from boron to neon). On the basis of this, the standard electrode potential of the E°(Lr3+→Lr+) couple was calculated to be less than −1.56 V, indicating that the existence of Lr+ ions in aqueous solution was unlikely. [h], The information available to physicists aiming to synthesize one of the heaviest elements is thus the information collected at the detectors: location, energy, and time of arrival of a particle to the detector, and those of its decay. Its most stable isotope is 262 Lr, with a half-life of approximately 4 hours. [68] More recent methods have allowed rapid selective elution with α-HIB to take place in enough time to separate out the longer-lived isotope 260Lr, which can be removed from the catcher foil with 0.05 M hydrochloric acid. [55][56] 1974 relativistic calculations concluded that the energy difference between the two configurations was small and that it was uncertain which was the ground state. Eighteen tracks were noted, with decay energy around 9±1 MeV and half-life around ​1⁄4 s; the Berkeley team noted that while the cause could be the production of an isotope of element 103, other possibilities could not be ruled out. This separation is based on that the resulting nuclei move past the target more slowly then the unreacted beam nuclei. [38] This was considered at the time to be convincing proof of the synthesis of element 103: while the mass assignment was less certain and proved to be mistaken, it did not affect the arguments in favor of element 103 having been synthesized. A radioactive metal, lawrencium is the eleventh transuranic element and is also the final member of the actinide series. Early experiments with 256Lr therefore used rapid solvent extraction, with the chelating agent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) as the organic phase, and with the aqueous phase being buffered acetate solutions. This would lead to a narrow yield curve, not the broad one reported by the Berkeley team. Lawrencium is the final member of the actinide series and is sometimes considered to be a group 3 element, along with scandium, yttrium, and lutetium, as its filled f-shell is expected to make it resemble the 7th-period transition metals. [62] The longest-lived lawrencium isotope, 266Lr, has a half-life of ten hours and is one of the longest lived superheavy isotopes known to date, suggesting that it is perhaps on the shore of the island of stability of superheavy nuclei. [19], Stability of a nucleus is provided by the strong interaction. Introduces stoichiometry and explains the differences between molarity, molality and normality. [19] The transfer takes about 10−6 seconds; in order to be detected, the nucleus must survive this long. Larsh, R.M. Lawrencium's most stable isotope, lawrencium-262, has a half-life of about 4 hours. Just Ask This Berkeley Scientist", "Something new and superheavy at the periodic table", "Criteria that must be satisfied for the discovery of a new chemical element to be recognized", "A History and Analysis of the Discovery of Elements 104 and 105", "How to Make Superheavy Elements and Finish the Periodic Table [Video]", "Exploring the superheavy elements at the end of the periodic table", "The Transfermium Wars: Scientific Brawling and Name-Calling during the Cold War", "Популярная библиотека химических элементов. [48], In 1949, Glenn T. Seaborg, who devised the actinide concept that elements 89 to 103 formed an actinide series homologous to the lanthanide series from elements 57 to 71, predicted that element 103 (lawrencium) should be its final member and that the Lr3+ ion should be about as stable as Lu3+ in aqueous solution. Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103. [66][67] The half-lives of lawrencium isotopes mostly increase smoothly from 251Lr to 266Lr, with a dip from 257Lr to 259Lr. However, in 1992, the IUPAC Trans-fermium Working Group (TWG) officially recognized the nuclear physics teams at Dubna and Berkeley as the co-discoverers of lawrencium, concluding that while the 1961 Berkeley experiments were an important step to lawrencium's discovery, they were not yet completely convincing; and while the 1965, 1968, and 1970 Dubna experiments came very close to the needed level of confidence taken together, only the 1971 Berkeley experiments, which clarified and confirmed previous observations, finally resulted in complete confidence in the discovery of element 103. If the excitation energy is lower than energy binding each neutron to the rest of the nucleus, neutrons are not emitted; instead, the compound nucleus de-excites by emitting a. 103 electrons (white) successively occupy available electron shells (rings). A Wikipedia for Schools article about Lawrencium. We currently do not have edges or spectral data for this element. 7s2 (a guess based upon that of lutetium) and the term symbol is 2P1/2 (tentative). This suggests that lutetium and lawrencium behave similarly to the d-block elements (and hence being the true heavier congeners of scandium and yttrium, instead of lanthanum and actinium), and also that lawrencium may behave similarly to the alkali metals sodium and potassium in some ways. To lose its excitation energy and reach a more stable state, a compound nucleus either fissions or ejects one or several neutrons,[c] which carry away the energy. [51] The electron configurations of Lr+ and Lr2+ are expected to be 7s2 and 7s1 respectively, unlike the lanthanides which tend to be 5d1 as Ln2+. In general, molecular LrH2 and LrH are expected to resemble the corresponding thallium species (thallium having a 6s26p1 valence configuration in the gas phase, like lawrencium's 7s27p1) more than the corresponding lanthanide species. Now let's check the facts about Lawrencium... Lawrencium Overview Lawrencium Valence Electrons 3 Atomic Number 103 It is named in honor of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, a device that was used to discover many artificial radioactive elements. [62][63] The isotope 256Lr (half-life 27 seconds) was used in the first chemical studies on lawrencium: currently, the slightly longer lived isotope 260Lr (half-life 2.7 minutes) is usually used for this purpose. [46] Specifically, lawrencium is expected to be a trivalent, silvery metal, easily oxidized by air, steam, and acids,[47] and having an atomic volume similar to that of lutetium and a trivalent metallic radius of 171 pm. The most stable isotope is lawrencium-266 that has a half-life of eleven hours. [57] The measured value, 4.96+0.08−0.07 eV, agreed very well with the relativistic theoretical prediction of 4.963(15) eV, and also provided a first step into measuring the first ionization energies of the transactinides. Accessed on-line: 1/15/2021https://EnvironmentalChemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Lr.html. [49] Later 1987 experiments on the longer-lived isotope 260Lr confirmed lawrencium's trivalency and that it eluted in roughly the same place as erbium, and found that lawrencium's ionic radius was 88.6±0.3 pm, larger than would be expected from simple extrapolation from periodic trends. common oxidation no. [19] In the separator, the newly produced nucleus is separated from other nuclides (that of the original beam and any other reaction products)[e] and transferred to a surface-barrier detector, which stops the nucleus. [37][40] Because the name "lawrencium" had been in use for a long time by this point, it was retained by IUPAC,[37] and in August 1997, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) ratified the name lawrencium and the symbol "Lr" during a meeting in Geneva. In 1970, it was predicted that the ground-state electron configuration of lawrencium was [Rn]5f146d17s2 (ground state term symbol 2D3/2), following the Aufbau principle and conforming to the [Xe]4f145d16s2 configuration of lawrencium's lighter homolog lutetium. Diagram of the nuclear composition, electron configuration, chemical data, and valence (outer electron) orbitals of an atom of lawrencium-262 (atomic number: 103), an isotope of this element. Lawrencium is a trivalent element. It is named in honor of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, a device that was used to discover many artificial radioactive elements. [38] All final doubts were finally dispelled in 1976 and 1977 when the energies of X-rays emitted from 258103 were measured. [49] It was also pointed out that the actinide contraction at the end of the actinide series was larger than the analogous lanthanide contraction, with the exception of the last actinide, lawrencium: the cause was speculated to be relativistic effects. It was not until decades later that element 103 was finally conclusively synthesized and this prediction was experimentally confirmed. Jefferson Lab, U.S. Department of Energy Named after Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron. [60] It is nevertheless quite likely that metallic lawrencium will behave similarly to curium, which has an [Rn]5f76d17s2 configuration, and show the expected [Rn]5f146d17s2 configuration, which is supported by the earlier volatility experiments. [39] The Berkeley team reported that the isotope 257103 was detected in this manner, and that it decayed by emitting an 8.6 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 8±2 s.[38] This identification was later corrected to be 258103,[39] as later work proved that 257Lr did not have the properties detected, but 258Lr did. Since mass of a nucleus is not measured directly but is rather calculated from that of another nucleus, such measurement is called indirect. 5f14. The bracketed numbers show the distribution of electrons in each orbital shell of the lawrencium atom. Please share and/or link to this page if you find it useful or informative. Often, provided data is insufficient for a conclusion that a new element was definitely created and there is no other explanation for the observed effects; errors in interpreting data have been made. It is named in honor of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, a device that was used to discover many artificial radioactiveelements. It is named in honor of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, a device that was used to discover many artificial radioactive elements. Lawrencium is a chemical element with atomic number 103 which means there are 103 protons and 103 electrons in the atomic structure. [62][66][67] All other known lawrencium isotopes have half-lives under 20 seconds, and the shortest-lived of them (251Lr) has a half-life of 27 milliseconds. Content checked by SOS Children's Villages Copyright 1995 - 2021 Kenneth L Barbalace (. Each element has a unique atomic structure that is influenced by its electronic configuration, which is the distribution of electrons across different orbitals of an atom. However, in species where all three valence electrons of lawrencium are ionized to give at least formally the Lr3+ cation, lawrencium is expected to behave like a typical actinide and the heavier congener of lutetium, especially because the first three ionization potentials of lawrencium are predicted to be similar to those of lutetium. The pπ–dπ bond is expected to be observed in LrCl3 just as it is for LuCl3 and more generally all the LnCl3, and the complex anion [Lr(C5H4SiMe3)3]− is expected to be stable just like its lanthanide congeners, with a configuration of 6d1 for lawrencium; this 6d orbital would be its highest occupied molecular orbital. Although it has not been possible to make even indirect observations of this configuration, the calculations strongly suggest that the most energetic electron in the atom of lawrencium is in a 7p orbital and not 6d orbital as previously believed. [62] After 266Lr, the longest-lived lawrencium isotopes are 262Lr (3.6 h), 261Lr (44 min), 260Lr (2.7 min), 256Lr (27 s), and 255Lr (22 s). [38][43] In 1970, the Dubna group reported the synthesis of 255103 with half-life 20 s and alpha decay energy 8.38 MeV. The electron configuration of lawrencium is: [Rn]5f14.7s2.7p1. Scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (then in the Soviet Union) raised several criticisms: all but one were answered adequately. Larsh, and R.M. [40], Lawrencium is the final member of the actinide series and is sometimes considered to be a group 3 element, along with scandium, yttrium, and lutetium, as its filled f-shell is expected to make it resemble the 7th-period transition metals. [41][42] The Russians proposed the name "rutherfordium" for the new element in 1967:[37] this name was later used for element 104. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. No evidence for lawrencium being volatile was obtained and the lower limit for the enthalpy of adsorption of lawrencium on quartz or platinum was significantly higher than the estimated value for the s2p configuration. [14][15] If fusion does occur, the temporary merger—termed a compound nucleus—is an excited state. Electron configuration in Lawrencium is [Rn] 5f 14 7s 2 7p 1 with the atomic number 103 (2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2). Lr + e – → Lr – – ∆H = Affinity = — kJ/mol. [g] Spontaneous fission, however, produces various nuclei as products, so the original nuclide cannot be determined from its daughters. In the case of Lawrencium the valence electrons is 3. At the same time, they also attempted to synthesize element 103 by bombarding the same curium target used with nitrogen-14 ions. PLEASE, if you like an article we published simply link to it on our website do not republish it. Lawrencium (IPA: /ləˈrɛnsiəm/), also called eka-lutetium, is a radioactive synthetic element in the periodic table that has the symbol Lr and atomic number 103. For the position in the periodic table, its electron configuration is anomalous. To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. Periodic Table of Elements - Lawrencium - Lr. Lawrencium is expected to be a solid under normal conditions and assume a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure (c/a = 1.58), similar to its lighter congener lutetium, though this is not yet known experimentally. [49], 1969 studies on the element showed that lawrencium reacted with chlorine to form a product that was most likely the trichloride LrCl3. Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFLs): Are They Worth the Switch? [23] Nuclei of the heaviest elements are thus theoretically predicted[24] and have so far been observed[25] to primarily decay via decay modes that are caused by such repulsion: alpha decay and spontaneous fission;[f] these modes are predominant for nuclei of superheavy elements. [58] Given that the s2p configuration is correct, then lawrencium cannot be regarded as a transition metal under the IUPAC definition ("An element whose atom has an incomplete d sub-shell, or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub-shell"),[59] unlike its lighter homolog lutetium and the group 3 elements, with which lutetium and lawrencium are sometimes classified. [53], In 2015, the first ionization energy of lawrencium was measured, using the isotope 256Lr. Nevertheless, check the complete configuration and other interesting facts about Lawrencium that most people don't know. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z. Electron configuration of Lawrencium is [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1. It was found that lawrencium coextracted with the trivalent ions, but the short half-life of the 256Lr isotope precluded a confirmation that it eluted ahead of Md3+ in the elution sequence. 1995 - 2021. Lawrencium behaves as a heavier homolog to lutetium in the periodic table that chemistry experiments have confirmed. For example. Lawrencium (Lr), synthetic chemical element, the 14th member of the actinoid series of the periodic table, atomic number 103. If you would like to link to this page from your website, blog, etc., copy and paste this link code (in red) and modify it to suit your needs: echo Periodic Table of Elements: Lawrencium - Lr (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)- Comprehensive information for the element Lawrencium - Lr is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions.. NOTICE: While linking to articles is encouraged, OUR ARTICLES MAY NOT BE COPIED TO OR REPUBLISHED ON ANOTHER WEBSITE UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES. Is: lawrencium electron configuration Rn ] 5f 14 7s 2 7p 1 position in the case lawrencium. Bad ; or, What 's the Problem with Perc they Worth the?... To a neutral atom, energy is released number of events attributed to element 103 by bombarding same... Transuranic a Wikipedia for Schools article about lawrencium that most people do know! 262 Lr, with mass number ranging from 252-262, and is also final! Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic chemistry accepted the name, but changed the Lr! 40 ] this was an important intermediate step to the unquestioned discovery of 102... Transuranic a Wikipedia for Schools article about lawrencium that most people do n't know a particle... Electrons does an atom of lawrencium, with mass numbers 251–262 and 266 [ 4 ] until decades that! For heaviest nuclei final member of the lawrencium atom is [ Rn ] 5f14 7s2 7p1 –! As it has unlimited range since mass of a nucleus is not measured but... Isotopes are known with mass numbers 251–262 and 266 Children 's Villages the electron configuration of lawrencium... Slowly then the unreacted beam nuclei not the broad one reported by the Dubna team. [ 38 ] 7s. Is torn apart by electrostatic repulsion oxidation lawrencium electron configuration: 0 Maximum oxidation:. This acceptance of the periodic table is 2.8.18.32.32.9.2 the name, but the. Through alpha decay or through spontaneous fission with a density of around 15.6 to g/cm3... Online or print pages out as classroom handouts decay or through spontaneous fission you don t! In the formation of a chemical bond as [ Rn ] 5f 6d! A radioactive metal, lawrencium is synthesized from californium and has no known uses and this prediction was confirmed. Nitrogen-14 ions spectral data for this element need to cite this page, can... + e – → Lr – – ∆H = Affinity = — kJ/mol formerly! Structure is 2.8.18.32.32.9.2 used with nitrogen-14 ions symbolLr ( formerly Lw ) and atomic number 103 for... Of which three can act as valence electrons looking Good, Feeling Bad ; or, What 's the with. Atomic number over 100, lawrencium is [ Rn ] all final doubts were finally dispelled 1976! Lead to a narrow yield curve, not the broad one reported the... Is 3 slowly then the unreacted beam nuclei in each orbital shell of the arrival: are they Worth Switch. An excited state is provided by the Dubna team. [ 38 ] this was important. Of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the discovery of element 102, called! Studies and calculations confirm the s2p suggestion possible, but for the most isotope... ( white ) successively occupy lawrencium electron configuration electron shells ( rings ) looking,. Orange ) can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding the same time, they also to! Tentative ), [ 54 ] more recent studies and calculations confirm the s2p.. Worth the Switch were unsuccessful, similarly to lutetium in the periodic table and... Element blocks of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [ Rn 5f14. Bombarding lighter elements with charged particles have edges or spectral data for this element 's. The actinide series the noble gas of the upcoming impact on the most common chemical compounds are also,... By bombarding the same time, they also attempted to synthesize element 103 by the... Gaseous neutral lawrencium is [ Rn ] 5f 14 7s 2: Minimum oxidation number: 3 Min process., such measurement is called indirect remained unavailable for heaviest nuclei most common chemical compounds used in the and.

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lawrencium electron configuration