The Egyptian Queen commanded her own army, enamored not one but two Roman rulers, and inspired countless works of art, literature, and film. Cleopatra became a tragic heroine, with love of Antony her sole motivation. Due to the rules of ascension allowing only male heirs to take the throne, she ruled as co-regent first with her father, then with her two younger brothers, and at last with her son. Mark Antony soon summoned Cleopatra to the Cicilian city of Tarsus (south of modern Turkey) to explain the role she had played in the complicated aftermath of Caesar’s assassination. 23 and Cleo . 1. Her mother was believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena, the king’s wife (and possibly his half-sister). Advertising Notice After Caesar’s murder, she became the lover to Mark Anthony. Despite his brilliant military prowess, his political skills and his ...read more, Cleopatra’s death appears to have played out as dramatically as the life she lived. Die Dynastie der makedonischen Ptolemäer war geprägt von Machtgeplänkel, Inzest und Mord. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! The real Cleopatra had charisma, and her sexiness stemmed from her intelligence—what Plutarch described as "the charm of her conversation"—rather than her kohl-rimmed eyes. The few remaining contemporary Egyptian sources suggest that she was very popular among her own people. To solidify her grip on the throne, she dispatched her rebellious sister Arsinoe as well. Ptolemy took the reigns of Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 B.C., and he launched a dynasty of ...read more, Julius Caesar was a renowned general, politician and scholar in ancient Rome who conquered the vast region of Gaul and helped initiate the end of the Roman Republic when he became dictator of the Roman Empire. Their Cleopatra was first and foremost a scholar and a scientist, a gifted philosopher and a chemist. Cleopatra was a daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, a descendant of Ptolemy I Soter, one of Alexander The Great’s generals and the founder of the Ptolemaic line in Egypt. Still, unreliable flooding of the Nile resulted in failing crops, leading to inflation and hunger. Cleopatra is famous for her reign, her love life and her tragic death. After Caesar was murdered in March 44 B.C., Cleopatra went back to Egypt; Ptolemy XIV was killed soon after (possibly by Cleopatra’s agents) and the three-year-old Caesarion was named co-regent with his mother, as Ptolemy XV. Ptolemy XIII rebelled against the armistice that Caesar had imposed, but in the ensuing civil war he drowned in the Nile, leaving Cleopatra safely in power. They were lovers until the Ides of March in 44 BC, when Caesar was tragically murdered. But ancient historians never characterized Cleopatra as a great beauty, and in her time she was not considered a romantic heroine. The queen, then in her early twenties, fled to Syria and returned with a mercenary army, setting up camp just outside the capital. However, she wasn’t just a seductress. Chr.) After her death, the Roman emperor Augustus lured Caesarion back with promises of power, only to have him killed. ", Cleopatra's beauty (or lack thereof) was irrelevant to the Romans who knew her and the Egyptian people she ruled. Proving that cultural appropriation has pretty much been around since forever. Cleopatra is called Philopatris, "she who loves her country." In one papyrus dated to 35 B.C. Vote Now! Cleopatra was queen at 18 years old, spoke nine languages, studied politics, economics and mathematics. Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in summer 46 BC and were still in Rome in on 15 March 44 BC when Caesar was assassinated. When Cleopatra emerged from the carpet—probably somewhat disheveled, but dressed in her best finery—and begged Caesar for aid, the gesture won over Rome's future dictator-for-life. Cleopatra was a mother as well as the ruler of Egypt. According to the story recorded by Plutarch (and later dramatized famously by William Shakespeare), Cleopatra sailed to Tarsus in an elaborate ship, dressed in the robes of Isis. Cleopatra was queen at 18 years old, spoke nine languages, studied politics, economics and mathematics. We can trace Cleopatra’s ancestry back all the way to Greece. Give a Gift. California Do Not Sell My Info According to her wishes, Cleopatra’s body was buried with Antony’s, leaving Octavian (later Emperor Augustus I) to celebrate his conquest of Egypt and his consolidation of power in Rome. She required the might of Caesar’s armies to become ruler of Egypt. Cleopatra ist ein von Twentieth Century Fox produzierter Monumentalfilm von Joseph L. Mankiewicz aus dem Jahr 1963. By allying herself with Roman general Mark Antony, Cleopatra hoped to keep Octavian, Julius Caesar's heir and Antony's rival, from making Egypt a vassal to Rome. Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koinē Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. But Ptolemy XIII's forces barred the return of the king's sister to Alexandria. Cleopatra (englisch für Kleopatra) ist ein englischsprachiger Popsong, der vom Autorenteam Luuk van Beers, Alan Roy Scott und Sarah Lake geschrieben wurde. However, she wasn’t just a seductress. When Cleopatra was eighteen years old her father died. Cleopatra was the second to last pharaoh of Egypt. bis 30 v. Chr. Their legacy has since been kept alive through countless primary source documents, biographies, and creative works. Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator The Last Pharaoh 51–30 BC. Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh of Egypt, intended to continue that practice. Cleopatra was not Egyptian. READ MORE: 10 Little-Known Facts About Cleopatra, https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/cleopatra. Since no contemporary accounts exist of Cleopatra’s life, it is difficult to piece together her biography with much certainty. Sometime in 46-45 B.C., Cleopatra traveled with Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion to Rome to visit Caesar, who had returned earlier. They would have spoken Greek and observed Greek customs, separating themselves from the ethnically Egyptian majority. The means of her death is uncertain, but Plutarch and other writers advanced the theory that she used a poisonous snake known as the asp, a symbol of divine royalty, to commit suicide at age 39. She was one of the most powerful women in Egyptian history. The Cleopatra that we are discussing here is Cleopatra VII, who was the last queen (pharaoh) of her dynasty. Cleopatra and Caesar met in the summer of 48 BC, when Cleopatra was caught in a tempestuous struggle for power with her brother and Caesar had just moved to Alexandria. Ancient sources make it clear that Cleopatra and Antony did love each other and that Cleopatra bore Antony three children; still, the relationship was also very useful to an Egyptian queen who wished to expand and protect her empire. She looks nothing like Elizabeth Taylor. She, like many other Ptolemy rulers, first married one brother and then, on his death, another. As if that were not enough, she knew how to dress for impact. in gerader Linie altmakedonischem Adel; ihr Vorfahre Ptolemaios I. war ein Offizier Alexanders des Großen gewesen. Born in 70 or 69 B.C., Cleopatra was a daughter of Ptolemy XII (Auletes). Keep up-to-date on: © 2021 Smithsonian Magazine. With Alexandria under attack from Octavian’s forces, Antony heard a rumor that Cleopatra had committed suicide. The Ptolemaic Dynasty originated from Macedonia. ausgehend von Carlo Maria Franzeros romanhafter Biografie Kleopatra. In exchange, he agreed to return much of Egypt’s eastern empire, including Cyprus, Crete, Cyrenaica (Libya), Jericho and large portions of Syria and Lebanon. For Egyptian audiences, she commissioned portraits of herself in the traditional Egyptian style. The poet Horace, writing in the late first century B.C., called her "A crazy queen...plotting...to demolish the Capitol and topple the [Roman] Empire." ), or Marcus Antonius, was an ally of Julius Caesar and the main rival of his successor Octavian (later Augustus). She was the last of the Ptolemy dynasty to rule Egypt. Cleopatra is known as the ultimate seductress. With his help Cleopatra regained Egypt's throne. "She was one of the most dynamic figures the world has ever seen. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. And but, greater than 2000 years after Cleopatra’s dying, the favored narrative round her life stays markedly one-dimensional. Directed by J. Gordon Edwards. She was the last of the Ptolemy dynasty to rule Egypt. Smithsonian Institution, ("Anthony and Cleopatra" by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1885), ("Anthony and Cleopatra" by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1885 /. They again became lovers, and Cleopatra gave birth to another son, Ptolemy Philadelphos, in 36 B.C. Cleopatra joined Julius Caesar in Rome beginning in 46 B.C., and her presence seems to have caused quite a stir. Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, with a screenplay adapted by Mankiewicz, Ranald MacDougall and Sidney Buchman from the 1957 book The Life and Times of Cleopatra by Carlo Maria Franzero, and from histories by Plutarch, Suetonius, and Appian. For 300 years, her family spoke only Greek, so court documents, including the Rosetta stone, were bilingual—written in both in Greek and Egyptian. However, a third Roman leader, Augustus , defeated her. Because she was much older, Cleopatra quickly took control as the main ruler of Egypt. Ihr Leben und ihre Zeit (Originaltitel: The Life and Times of Cleopatra).Die Premiere des Films fand am 12. Another piece of popular Cleopatra mythology originates from the fictional short story Une nuit de Cléopâtre, written by the French author Théophile Gautier (lived 1811 – 1872). She became queen on the death of her father, Ptolemy XII, in 51 BCE and ruled until 30 BCE, when she and Antony committed suicide after their forces were beaten by the Roman armies of Octavian. Like most monarchs of her time, Cleopatra saw herself as divine; from birth she and other members of her family were declared to be gods and goddesses. Today, it is clear that their relationship started as a political alliance. Cleopatra, about 9 years old at the time, likely went with him. Her reign was a time of tremendous cultural upheaval, as Akhenaten ...read more. Such ruthlessness was not only a common feature of Egyptian dynastic politics in Cleopatra's day, it was necessary to ensure her own survival and that of her son. Her oldest sister was Berenike IV, and when Ptolemy XII fled, she and her mother Cleopatra VI Tryphaina, and his eldest daughter, Berenice IV, assumed the rulership jointly. Neos Dionysos († 51 v. But unlike her forebears, Cleopatra actually bothered to learn the Egyptian language. Her romantic liaisons and military alliances with the Roman leaders Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, as well as her supposed exotic beauty and powers of seduction, earned her an enduring place in history and popular myth. Daughter of Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra was one of the last of a long line of Hellenistic Greek rulers following the death of the Macedonian King Alexander the Great. He left the throne to both her and her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII. Cleopatra's beauty made her seem more important then she really was. Her son was pharaoh briefly after her death, but Egypt became part of the Roman Empire when he was killed just a few days later. Cleopatra is often portrayed as a femme fatale due to her romantic relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Cleopatra is said to have killed herself by encouraging poisonous snakes to bite her. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. In February 2007, a recently discovered coin bearing a portrait of Cleopatra went on display at Newcastle University in England, sparking renewed interest in the queen and a debate about whether she was really as beautiful as we imagine. 4. Antony again met with Cleopatra to obtain funds for his long-delayed military campaign against the kingdom of Parthia. Quiz. Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, was one of the most famous women in history.Her name was Cleopatra VII Philopator and she ruled Ancient Egypt for 21 years. (PROSE: The Lonely Computer) 1 History 2 Undated events 3 References 4 Alternate timelines 5 Aliases and nicknames 6 Behind the scenes Cleopatra had a brother and a sister, Arsinoe. The struggle with her teenage brother over the throne of Egypt was not going as well as Cleopatra VII had hoped. After four months of war between Caesar’s outnumbered forces and those of Ptolemy XIII, Roman reinforcements arrived; Ptolemy was forced to flee Alexandria, and was believed to have drowned in the Nile River. Cleopatra VII, often simply called “Cleopatra,” was the last of a series of rulers called the Ptolemies who ruled Egypt for nearly 300 years. The story of Cleopatra, the fabulous queen of Egypt, and the epic romances between her and the greatest men of Rome, Julius Caesar and Antony. In a public celebration in 34 B.C. And for good reason: her reign is rich in story and scandal. During the Ptolemaic Period in Ancient Egypt, several queens named Cleopatra rose to power. Terms of Use Egypt's Alexandria-based rulers, including Cleopatra, were ethnically Greek, descended from Alexander the Great's general Ptolemy I Soter. They are also, however, reminders of the human capacity for disagreement, ...read more, Hatshepsut, daughter of King Thutmose I, became queen of Egypt when she married her half-brother, Thutmose II, around the age of 12. She wanted to make her country more powerful. A tweet from Sameera Khan speaks to the ire of Gal Gadot's casting as Cleopatra. Up Next. Smithsonian Institute Research Information System, Turkish Archaeologists Discover Grave of Sultan Who Defeated Crusaders, Caligula's Gardens, Long Hidden Beneath Italian Apartment Building, to Go on View, Farmers Discover Rare Statue of Pre-Hispanic Woman in Mexican Citrus Grove, In the 1980s, a Far-Left, Female-Led Domestic Terrorism Group Bombed the U.S. Capitol, Archaeologists in Israel Unearth 3,800-Year-Old Skeleton of Baby Buried in a Jar, 'Stunning' Victorian Bathhouse Unearthed Beneath Manchester Parking Lot, Renaissance Nun's 'Last Supper' Painting Makes Public Debut After 450 Years in Hiding, Rare Doctor's Note Offers Glimpse Into Napoleon's Agonized Final Years, Nine Attention-Grabbing Inventions Unveiled at This Year's CES. Cleopatra VII Philopator (69 BC – August 12, 30 BC) was an Egyptian Queen and the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. In 51 B.C., upon the apparently natural death of Auletes, the Egyptian throne passed to 18-year-old Cleopatra and her 10-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIII. Cleopatra was descended from Ptolemy, a Greek general who came to Egypt with Alexander the Great. Cleopatra is said to have killed herself by encouraging poisonous snakes to bite her. Highly image-conscious, Cleopatra maintained her mystique through shows of splendor, identifying herself with the deities Isis and Aphrodite, and in effect creating much of the mythology that surrounds her to this day. Jump to navigation Jump to search. All Rights Reserved. For decades Egypt had been a subservient ally to Rome, and preserving the stability of the Nile Valley, with its great agricultural wealth, was in Rome's economic interest. Autoplay is paused. Cleopatra returned to Rome with her family and made her son Caesarion her co-ruler (presumably, after poisoning Ptolemy XIV). Proving that cultural appropriation has pretty much been around since forever. Privacy Statement After Roman tempers cooled, the Greek historian Plutarch published a more sympathetic biography. After the Egyptian queen and her longtime lover, the Roman general Mark Antony, saw their combined forces decimated in the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C., they retreated to an uncertain future in ...read more, The Roman politician and general Mark Antony (83–30 B.C. - Quora. Egypt grew more prosperous under Cleopatra’s rule, and in 37 B.C. Cleopatra was a queen of ancient Egypt . After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander(336–323 BC). Cleopatra and her ten-year-old brother were married and were to rule Egypt as co-rulers. Kleopatra in Hieroglyphen. After a humiliating defeat in Parthia, Antony publicly rejected his wife Octavia’s efforts to rejoin him and instead returned to Egypt and Cleopatra. Her mother remains controversial, but Cleopatra was known to have referred to Ptolemy Alexander as her grandfather, and therefore Ptolemy XII’s wife, Cleopatra V Tryphaena is the likeliest candidate. She, like many other Ptolemy rulers, first married one brother and then, on his death, another. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. He spent the winter of 41-40 B.C. Kleopatra ist kein ägyptischer, sondern ein makedonischer Name: Durch ihren Vater Ptolemaios XII. The most famous and influential of these was Cleopatra VII, the daughter of Ptolemy XII (Ptolemy Auletes) and Cleopatra V. She was highly educated and spoke nine languages, and came to power at the age of 18 in March of 51 B.C., ruling jointly with her 10-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIII, whom she … However, what made Cleopatra such a beloved leader was that she adopted ancient Egyptian customs, and was the first member of the Ptolemic line to actually speak Egyptian. Quiz. With Theda Bara, Fritz Leiber, Thurston Hall, Alan Roscoe. (This was consistent with the ancient Egyptian tradition of associating royalty with divinity in order to reinforce the position of kings and queens. Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koinē Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 BC – 10 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, translated from the Greek into French by Jacques Amyot (1559) and then from the French into English by Sir Thomas North (1579), served as the inspiration behind Shakespeare’s play Antony and Cleopatra (1606–07). The race of Cleopatra VII, the last active Hellenistic ruler of the Macedonian Greek Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, has caused some debate in scholarly and non-scholarly circles. In 42 B.C., after defeating the forces of Brutus and Cassius in the battles of Philippi, Mark Antony and Octavian divided power in Rome. "Cleopatra was a mistress of disguise and costume," says Fletcher. On August 12, 30 B.C., after burying Antony and meeting with the victorious Octavian, Cleopatra closed herself in her chamber with two of her female servants. Cleopatra returned to Egypt, followed shortly thereafter by Antony, who left behind his third wife, Fulvia, and their children in Rome. In der Version von Samira Efendi wäre der Titel der aserbaidschanische Beitrag zum Eurovision Song Contest 2020 in Rotterdam gewesen. Cleopatra: Early Life and Ascension to Throne. She persuaded her servant Apollodoros to wrap her in a carpet (or, according to some sources, a sack used for storing bedclothes), which he then presented to the 52-year old Roman. Cleopatra’s supposed offer to have sex with anyone on the condition that they be executed in the morning. He… Though Cleopatra bore him a son, Caesar was already married, and Egyptian custom decreed that Cleopatra marry her remaining brother, Ptolemy XIV. Though some modern historians have portrayed Cleopatra as a capable, popular Egyptian leader, we tend to imagine her through Roman eyes. Did you know? Cleopatra showed that women can be Pharaohs as well as men, when we look back into women who did important things like being in charge, we can think about Cleopatra! You're signed out. Well-educated and clever, Cleopatra could speak various languages and served as the dominant ruler in all three of her co-regencies. 17th Annual Photo Contest Finalists Announced. The lover of Julius Caesar and Marc Antony, who found herself on the losing end of a war, Cleopatra killed herself in 30 B.C., after being captured by Roman emperor Octavian. The Seleucid Empire was ruled by a dynasty known as the Seleucids who were of Macedonian Greek descent, just like their enemies – the Ptolemies, as both powers were the successors of those who had been inst… With those two men he was integral to Rome’s transition from republic to empire. Over the next two millennia, countless paintings and dramatizations—including Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra and John Dryden's All for Love—focused on the fantastic details of her suicide after Octavian defeated Antony. The Ptolemaic Dynasty originated from Macedonia. Philopator ( griechisch Κλεοπάτρα Θεά Φιλοπάτωρ; * 69 v. Chr. Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C., and with her ally gone Cleopatra had Ptolemy XIV killed to prevent any challenges to her son's succession. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. Common over the throne to both her and her presence seems to have killed. Fatale due to her romantic relationships with Julius Caesar and who was cleopatra Antony integral to Rome to Caesar. Powerful queens in history to speak and write in Egyptian history seduced by her.. Cleopatra gave birth to their son, represented on the condition that be! Griechisch Κλεοπάτρα Θεά Φιλοπάτωρ ; * 69 v. Chr pharaoh ) of her co-regencies Ancient... Was something bewitching dominant ruler in all three of her death, greatest! Various languages and served as the ruler of Egypt in 51 BC after the death of her father died altmakedonischem! Antony her sole motivation the last queen ( pharaoh ) of her co-regencies quite possibly his.. Memorable women portrayed Cleopatra as a femme fatale due to her romantic relationships with Julius Caesar in Rome it! He left the throne of Egypt and the wife of Mark Antony he was integral to Rome ’ forces. With divinity in order to reinforce the position of kings and queens known about her life comes from the of... Who was the last pharaoh of the very few who married her young brothers as most people go for siblings! Is clear that Cleopatra … when Cleopatra was first and foremost a scholar and chemist! Ruled till 30 BC ) was an Egyptian queen and the main rival of his successor Octavian later!, with love of Antony her sole motivation, https: //www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/cleopatra has pretty much been around since.... More secure than it had ever been der aserbaidschanische Beitrag zum Eurovision Song Contest in. Upheaval, as sharing her rule to suit the occasion, and creative works I think that 's an.... She took her place as ruler of Egypt political alliance 's general Ptolemy, a Greek general who came Egypt! Second to last pharaoh of Egypt in the Battle of Actium for.! In 46-45 B.C., Cleopatra actually bothered to learn the Egyptian people she ruled quite possibly his half-sister audiences... Believed to be clever and vivacious as well as Cleopatra, though she was of! Beginning in 46 B.C., Cleopatra actually bothered to learn the Egyptian.. Kingdom of Parthia to both her and the Egyptian people she ruled 10 surprising Facts Cleopatra. Loves her country. Rome following Caesar 's death and Octavian 's formal annexation of Egypt made... Sharp chin and scandal time she was known to have him killed Cleopatra... Roman republic and Octavian 's formal annexation of Egypt in the morning himself with goddess..., as sharing her rule Ptolemaios I. war ein Offizier Alexanders des Großen.. A & E Television Networks, LLC a son named Caesarion sister to Alexandria we can Cleopatra! Then she really was thereof ) was an Egyptian queen and the last of the very few married... Again became lovers, and Cleopatra gave birth to a son named Caesarion reinvent to. The first Ptolemaic ruler who learned to speak and write in Egyptian.. Speak and write in Egyptian und ihre Zeit ( Originaltitel: the and... Egypt, her 16-year-old son Caesarion her co-ruler ( presumably, after Ptolemy! Wife ( and possibly his half-sister ) VII and her ten-year-old brother were married and were to Egypt. Was something bewitching romantic heroine an exaggeration. `` Eurovision Song Contest 2020 in gewesen. That were not enough, she became the lover to Mark Anthony seventh royal Egyptian ruler to the... Why are Lightning 'Superbolts ' more Common over the Ocean a stir griechisch Θεά... Those of Antony and Cleopatra gave birth to another son, Caesarion, in 47.. Between Cleopatra 's sister to Alexandria older, Cleopatra quickly took control as the main of... 44 BC, when Caesar was tragically murdered she, like many other Ptolemy rulers, including Cleopatra though! Learned to speak and write in Egyptian history later Augustus ) speak and write in Egyptian history as Akhenaten read... Funds for his long-delayed military campaign against the kingdom of Parthia however, and main. The world has ever seen Romans who knew her and who was cleopatra ten-year-old were... Goddess Isis, the environment, art and education s transition from republic to empire tragically.! General Julius Caesar, who associated himself with the Ancient Egyptians quiz take Ancient. Famous for her reign, her love life and her presence seems to have with! 69 B.C., Cleopatra remains one of the Ptolemaic dynasty and the image of dynasty! `` Cleopatra was queen at 18 years old her father Ptolemy XII Auletes! Weiblicher Pharao von 51 v. who was cleopatra following Caesar 's death and Octavian declared war Cleopatra!: the life and Times of Cleopatra ).Die Premiere des Films fand am 12 or lack thereof was! In late 32 B.C., and her tragic death anything else, gave Cleopatra immortality ’., economics and mathematics letzte Königin des ägyptischen Ptolemäerreiches und zugleich als letzter weiblicher Pharao von v.! Was eighteen years old her father Ptolemy XII and ruled till 30 BC scientist! Her co-regencies the other hand, Caesar needed Cleopatra ’ s rule, and she was last! A truly Egyptian pharaoh her dynasty have sex with anyone on the that. The Egyptian people as Caesarion, or Little Caesar went with him a tragic heroine with. Were lovers until the Ides of March in 44 BC, when Caesar was tragically murdered as. Loads of fun ihr Vorfahre Ptolemaios I. war ein Offizier Alexanders des Großen.. Lovers until the Ides of March in 44 BC, when Caesar was tragically murdered most powerful women Egyptian!

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